Project 712 supressed text version
Ogden's Basic English as a Lexical Database In Natural Language Processing
by Scott R. Hawkins
Ogden's assumptions about what was necessary [,] provide lexicon designers with surprising advantages, one of which is an unexpected order in the vocabulary. During the sorting process it became clear that many of the words in the vocabulary could be categorized according to which areas of experience they dealt with. Most of the vocabulary fell into one of four categories (physical, animal, human and economic) hereafter referred to as systems.
Design of the Lexicon
That property of the data could be rather significant in light of the
success of Terry Winograd's SHRDLU (Windograd, 1972). Though not ...
[page 24 ]
Systems and their Components
The ultimate goal of any natural language processing system is to ...
Figure 1 - System Hierarchy
Analysis of The Model
With that said, we are now in a position to discuss how the nature of ...
The implementation of my hierarchy, or 'ALAN' as I came to call it, 5 is
largely a program for the creation, storage, and retrieval of the data structure. ...
5 for Alan Turing
. . .
. . . Verbs are stored only in present tense -- I plan to add
complete verb conjugations at a later date.
6 Currently, MAXWORD=15 and MAXCHILD=30, but that is easily chnaged by
modifying a single line in the header file.
Figure 2 -- A node
The type filed of a none is a four character7 string containing letters to symbolize the values of the four fields below:
7 Though there are MAXWORD (=15) characters available, only the first four are used.
. . .
. . .
Component, Instance, Synonym
To get a feel for how this strategy worked in practice, consider the section of the tree shown in Figure 3 (below)
The type fields are shown below the words with which they are associated.
The type field for beast, 'eaas' indicates that the word 'beast' is an
entity, is part of the animal system, is animate, and is a synonym for its
parent. The type field for toe, 'epac' indicates that toe is an entity which is part
of the physical system, is animate, and is a component of its parent. Note that
the 'animal' node is described as being an entity in the physical rather than the animal system.
Figure 3 - Type Field in the Network
When the data structure has been successfully constructed,
ALAN prints out a message indicating the number of words which have been loaded
and waits for the user to hit return. At that point, the program prints the main menu on the screen. Five options are offered (see Fig 4): insert a
new word, listing menu, question and answer sequence, modify type, and
quit. These options are explained in greater detail below.
Vocabulary and Type Insertion
Inserting a new word is a complex but standard process. It involves ...
The listing menu prints out the words and their types, either alone or ...
Assign Semantic Components
The option allows the user to associate some semantic formula with a word.
Figure 4 -- ALAN's Flowchart
The quit option writes the vocabulary together any changes to the file 'vocab.a.'
Question and Answer Interface
The question and answer interface is discussed in detail in the next chapter. ...
The system implementation, ALAN, is a portable, expandable program ...
The question and answer sequence has as two options : Tell the user about ...
Testing the System Using the Question and Answer Interface
This testing displays some of the capabilities of the data structure. The ...
Directions for Further Research
Part I - Planned Enhancement Based on Prior Work
Though the system does possess some interesting capabilities in its current form, ...
Obviously, there needs to be a provision for verb (operation) tenses. ...
Obviously, the simple 1-entry/M-attribute/N-operation model of ..
The last improvement which I envision is the most interesting and the most difficult. ...
Next : Bibliography
Allen, James. (1987) Natural Language Understanding. Menlo Park,
California: The Benjamin/cummings Publishing Company, Inc.
Alshawi, Hiyan. (1987) Memory and Context for Language Intepretation.
Great Britain: The University Press, Cambridge.
Brachman, Ronald. (1979) "On the Epistemological Status of Semantic
Networks." In Associative Networks: Representation and
Use of Knowledge by Computers. Ed. Nicholas V. Findler. New
York: Academic Press.
Berwick, Robert C. (1985) The Acquisition of Syntactic Knowledge.
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Collins, A.M. and Quillian, M. R. (1969) "Retrieval time from semantic
memory" Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 8,
Davis, Ernest. (1990) Representations of Commonsense Knowledge.
San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.
Fillmore, Charles. (1968) "The case for case." In Universals in Lingistic
Theory. Eds. E. Bach and R. Harms. New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Fillmore, Charles. (1977) "The case for case reopened," in Syntax and
Semantics 8: Grammatical Relations. Eds. P. Cole and J. Sadock.
New York: Academic Press, 1977.
Hausser, Roland. (1987) Computation of Language. New York:
Hendrix, Gary. (1979) "Semantic Knowledge." In Understanding Spoken
Language. Ed. Donald E. Walker. New York: North-Holland.
Levesque, Hector, and John Mylopoulos. (1979) "A Procedural Semantics for
Semantic Networks." In Associative Networks: Representation and
Use of Knowledge by Computers. Ed. Nicholas V. Findler. New York:
Minsky, Marvin ed. (1968) Semantic Information Processing. Cambridge,
MA: The MIT Press.
Nagao, Makato. (1988) Knowledge and Inference. Boston: Academic Press,
Ogden, C. K. (1934) The System of Basic English. New York: Harcourt, Brace
Prochiantz, Alain. (1989) How the Brain Evolved. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Quillian, M. Ross. (1968) "Semantic Memory," in Semantic Information
Processing Ed. M. Minsky. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Rich, Elaine. (1983) Artificial Intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Schank, R. C. and C. K. Riesbeck. (1981) Inside Computer Understanding.
Hillsdale, NI: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Schubert, L. K., R. G. Goebel and N. I. Cercone. (1979) "The Structure and
Organization of a Semantic Net for Comprehension and Inference." in
Associative Networks: Representation and Use of Knowledge bv
Computers. Ed. Nicholas V. Findler. New York: Academic Press.
Simmons, R. F. (1973) "Semantic Networks: Their computation and use for
understanding English sentences." In Computer Models of Thought
and Language. Eds. Schank, R. C. and K.M. Colby. San Francisco, CA:
Shainberg, Lawrence. (1979) Brain Surgeon. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co.
Sowa, John F. (1992) Conceptual Structures: Current Research and Practice.
Eds. New York: EllisHorwood.
Waltz, David. (1989) Semantic Structures: Advances in Natural Language
Understanding. Hillsdale, NI: Hove and London.
Winograd, T. (1972) Understanding Natural Language. New York: Academic Press.
[ image page 54 ]
[ image page 55 ]
[ image page 56 ]
Next : Appendix A
The following is the listing of my categorization of C. K. Ogden's System of Basic English.
To the best of my knowledge, all 850 words in the original document have been represented at least once. A few of them appear more than once. For example, 'change' appears as both a noun and a verb. In addition, I too the liberty of adding approximately 100 words to the vocabulary. The words which have been added are marked with an asterisk (*).
There were two primay reasons for those additions:
1. The word added served as a 'parent' node in the network. For example, I added the word 'texture' to serve as a seantic parent for the set of words 'sticky,' 'fuzzy,' 'rough,' etc.
2. The word served to flesh out a set of which there was a
parent but few children. For example, 'filthy,' and 'sterile,' were
added to the category attributes / evaluation / cleanliness, which previously contained only the word 'clean' and 'dirty'.
I followed certain notational conventons in listing the vocabulary. Words were indented one and one-quarter inches further than their parents. For example, the network configurations shown below (Fig 5).
would be represented in the listing as:
Figure 5: Network Configuration
rain snow mist
Since nodes which were componets of other nodes are the exception rather than the rule, the reader
may assume that any hierarchical relationship is an instance unless told otherwise.
There may be accidental differences between this listing and the actual implementation.
The root of the entire physical system is environment. All the nodes below are components of the environment, either directly or by inheritance.
The next 26 pages of systems require HTML tables, which are tedious.
Therefore I am just adding links to the scanned images. Appendix.
[ image page 59 ]
See also Economic System: Entities/Country.
[ image page 60 ]
[ image page 61 ]
[ image page 62 ]
[ image page 63 ]
[ image page 64 ]
[ image page 65 ]
[ image page 66 ]
[ image page 67 ]
[ image page 68 ]
See Physical Systems : Entities / Animal.
[ image page 69 ]
[ There may be a page or paragraph missing here for component "move". ]
[ image page 70 ]
See also Physical Systems : Entities / Animal / human [sic]
[ image page 71 ]
[ image page 72 ]
[ image page 73 ]
[ image page 74 ]
Back to Project Catalog or to
Institute home page.
About this Page: hawkins24.html - Project 712 page 24 Basic English
Last updated January 19, 2015 p.m.