絵を使用する英作文と
寺田方式疑問文の考察

English Making with Pictures and
Observation on Questions in Terada Method

1絵を使用する英作文

English Making with Pictures

絵を通して英語を学習するテキストを読むと、物語が語っているものを絵がカバーするのが容易でないため、学習者が興味を失う傾向があるように思えます。この場合絵を見て作文すれば、その作文は絵の話すものにもっと合ううようになり得ます。そうすれば学習者は興味を失はずに済みます。絵は我々にその絵の持つ何かを既に話しかけています。絵が話しかけているものから作文すれば、私達の作文は絵が与えているものに近くなり得るでしょう。

Reading a text saying “English through Pictures” seems to gives us a feeling that there may be a tendency for a learner to have a loss of interest because it is not easy for a picture to cover waht a story is telling. If we make a story from a picture with a look at it, such a story may go more with what the picture says and then a learner may be kept from having a loss of interest.. A picture is already telling us something about which it has a desire to say. If we make a story from what a picture wants to talk, our story may get near what a picture is giving.

ところで作文とは判断です。判断とは意味を求める行為です。作文の作文とは判断の判断ですから、意味の意味を求めることです。人は意味の意味を求めて生きています。従って人は意味の意味を求めることに興味の源泉を直観的に感じます。つまり絵を見て説明が絵に密着する様に作文すれば、それは、作文或いはそのセンスを、絵或いはそのセンス、から作ることになります。つまり意味の意味を求めることになります。そのような作文に人は興味を持ちます。この様にして出来た作文を寺田方式で会話体に直して会話練習をすれば、寺田方式はもう一つの興味を与えます。

By the way a story is judgment. Judgment is an act of seeking after sense. A story of a story is judgment of judgment and, therefore, it makes an attempt to get sense of sense. We are living for searching sense of sense. We have an intuitive feeling that our interest is rooted in the fact that we are living for going after sense of sense. If we see a picture and make a story to get it in touch with what a picture wants to talk, we are making a story or its sense from a picture or its sense, namely, we are getting sense of sense. So we are interested in such a story. Terada Method may give another interest if a story made that way is changed to conversation in Terada Method.

2疑問文の作り方

How to make Questions in Terada Method.

寺田方式で会話体に直すのに、最も重要なことは、原文をどの様に疑問文直前の文に作るのかということです。

The most important thing to make conversation in Terada Method is how to put an original statement into parts which are being able to be made into questions right away.

疑問文直前の文型の種類を把握し、各種類の全部或いはいずれかになる様に原文を直します。それには疑問文直前の文型の種類を考えてみる必要があります。

あらゆる文は形と、声にする場合は、音を持っています。言葉を覚えるのに人々は、読み書きの視覚力のために、文型を覚えます。次に文型内部の語形を覚えます。話す音感力のために、文の語音を覚えます。次に文音内部の語音を覚えます。そして覚えたこれらの語形で書き又読みます。又覚えたこれらの語音で言葉を話します。作文も話しも日常生活の会話から誕生します。

We get a knowledge of the types of statements ready for being made into questions. Then we make an original statement into all the types or some of them. For this purpose we give our thought to what the types are.

Every statement has a form and, when it is voiced, it has a sound. To get the visible power of reading or writing, we have forms of statements by heart. Then we get a knowledge of word forms in statements. To get the sound power of talking, we have a memory of sounds of statements. Then we get a knowledge of word sounds in them. We keep in memory these word forms for writing or reading and these word sounds for talking. Talking and making statements are given birth through conversation in our everyday living.

寺田方式で英会話文を作る場合には,先ず本文を疑問文直前の文の種類の全部或いはいずれかに作ります。そこでこれらの種類とその作り考察を下記に示します。

When we make English conversation in Terada Method, we make an original statement into all or some of the types of statements right before being changed into questions. In the following way we give the types of them and how to give our thoughts to them.

2−1疑問文作成直前の文の種類とその種類の考え方


2−1Types of Statements formed right before Questions are formed
     and How to give
our thoughts to them.

2−1−1疑問文作成直前の文には下記のA、B、C、及びDの4種類があります。

  1. 原文
  2. 原文の分析文。
  3. 原文の分析文と質問原文。
  4. 原文の分析文と分解質問原文。

2−1−1These statements have 4 types of A, B, C, and D as given below.   

  1. An original statement.
  2. Statements analyzed from an original statement
  3. Statements analyzed from an original statement and the original statement to question.
  4. Statements analyzed from an original statement and the original statement to decompose.

2−1−2疑問文作成直前の文の種類とその種類の考え方

  1. それ以上の疑問文に作ることの出来ない原文。
  2. 原文の分析文。
  3. 原文の分析文+疑問文に変えることが出来る原文。
    原文に二個の動詞が従属関係にあるため、その原文を疑問文に作ります。この原文を質問原文と称します。質問原文を疑問文にする場合、代名詞を適宜使用します。
  4. 原文の分析文+疑問文に変えることが出来るがその為に分解を必要とする原文。
    原文には二個以上の動詞が従属関係にあるため、原文を分解して疑問文を作ります。この原文を分解質問原文と称します。分解質問原文を疑問文にする場合、代名詞を適宜使用します。 

2−1−2Types of Statements formed before being made into questions
        and How to give thoughts to the Types.

  1. An original statement which can not be made into any more question than made into a question by itself.
  2. Statements analyzed from an original statement.
  3. Statements analyzed from an original statement + the original statement which is made into a question as a whole.
    The original statement has two verbs in subordinate relation. and so it can be made into a question as a whole.
    It is named an original statement to question. When such an original statement is made into a question, a pronoun is properly used wherever it is possible.
  4. Statements analyzed from an original statement + the original statement which is made into questions after decomposition.
    The original statement has more than
    two verbs in subordinate relation and so it is decomposed into parts which are made into questions. It is named an original statement to decompose. When such an original statement is made into questions, a pronoun is properly used wherever it is possible.

3疑問文の考察

Observation on Questions. 

原文A、分析文B、分析文と質問原文C、と分析文と分解質問原文Dは疑問文直前の文になっているので、それぞれ疑問文に変えるのは容易です。4種類のA、B、C、D各文を作成することは容易ではありません。

It is easy to make questions out of A, B, C, and D because these four types are ready for making questions without leaving almost any more room for making questions. It is not easy to make these four types of A, B, C, and D..

A、B、C、Dには疑問文直前の叙述文があり、これらの叙述文は、質問直前に話されるから, 学習者は答える場合そのような叙述文に依存できるので、原文から離れた質問となっても、学習者にとって答え易くなります。

These A, B, C, and D have statements which are voiced right before questions are voiced and therefore learners are able to be dependent for their answer on such statements, which make learners easy to answer questions even if questions become somewhat indirect to original statements.

4具体例の表示

Indication of Specific Examples

以上は具体例文を多数表示し、それらを会話の口頭練習することによって、誰でもが直観的に英文構造や英語各語の働きを理解し、寺田方式の会話文を作れるようになります。

The indication of many specific examples of A, B, C, and D types of statements gives learners a chance of intuitively understanding the structure of English statements and the work of English words and the power of making English conversation in Terada Method.

The Basic Teacher by L.W.Lockhart記載の絵と,それらの絵を使用して作った英作文と,A、B、C、及びDの文例を数頁別紙に添付します。

Attached few pages here show some English stories made with pictures in The Basic Teacher
by L.W. Lockhart, and examples of A, B, C, and D types.

寺田三郎
   越谷市浅間台
平成17913

Saburo Terada
Saitama Prefecture
Tuesday, September 13, 2005

                                         
 Family
 

Type

Original statements are shown in red and questioned statements in black.

B

I do the work at the store.

I do the work.

I do it at the store.

C

The store is in the town where we are living.

The store is in the town.

We are living in the town.

The store is in the town where we are living.

B

In the morning my wife does the work of the house.

She does the work of the house.

In the morning she does it.

B

After that she goes across the street to the store and gets food for the meal at night.

She goes across the street.

After that she goes.

She goes to the store.

She gets food for the meal at night.

The food is for the meal at night.

C

When the family comes in, she will put some potatoes and plates of meat on the table.

The family comes in.

She will put some potatoes and plates of meat.

She will put them on the table.

When the family comes in, she will put them on the table.

B

I am the manager of a small store in the town.

I am the manager.

The small store is in the town.

The store is small.

I am the manager of a small store in the town.

B

I do not take food with me.

I do not take food.

I do not take it with me.

B

I get a meal at the store or at a place at the other side of the street.

I get a meal.

I get it at the store.

I get it at a place at the other side of the street.

The place is at the other side of the street.

B

I may not have my meal with my family.

I may not have my meal.

I may not have it with my family.

C

On the days when I do late work at the store, I have a late meal after the others.

I do late work.

I do it at the store.

I have a late meal.

I have it after the others.

On the days when I do late work at the store, I have a late meal after the others.

B

After the meal I take a book and go to my place by the fire.

I take a book.

I go to my place by the fire.

My place is by the fire.

After the meal I take a book and go to my place by the fire.

C

While I am reading a book my wife and my daughter Ellen take the plates off the table.

I am reading a book.

They take the plates.

They take them off the table.

While I am reading a book they take them off the table.

B

I and my wife have the front bedroom.

The bedroom is front.

They have the front bedroom.

B

Tom has a bedroom at the back of the house.

Tom has a bedroom.

The bedroom is at the back of the house.

He has a bedroom at the back of the house.

B

Ellen has the small room under Tom’s room.

She has the small room.

The room is small.

She has the room under Tom’s room.

C

Tom will do the work at the store where his father is the manager.

He will do the work.

He will do the work at the store.

His father is the manager.

He is the manager at the store.

The manager is at the store.

He will do the work at the store where his father is the manager.

B

Ellen will make cushions and curtains in the work room of a great store.

She will make cushions and curtains.

The store is great.

She will make them in the work room of a great store.

 Work


Type

Original statements are shown in red and questionedstatements in black.

Left Picture (a)

A

They are doing the work.

A

They are putting up houses.

A

A man is taking a pallet.

A

A man is getting up on the loading platform.

C

He is waiting for the two other men to lift something to the platform.

He is waiting for the two men.

The two men are lifting something

They are lifting it to the platform.

He is waiting for them to lift something to the platform.

C

The man on the platform is stretching his arms to get a grip of the things which the other men are lifting.

The man is on the platform.

He is stretching his arms.

He is going to get a grip of the things.

The other men are lifting the things.

He is stretching his arms to get a grip of the things.

He gets a grip of the things which they are lifting.

He is stretching his arms to get a grip of the things which they are lifting.

B

The man with a pickax in his hands is digging the earth with it.

He has a pickax.

He has it in his hands.

He is digging the earth.

He is digging the earth with his pickax.

A

A man is walking with a shovel.

Middle Picture (b)

B

The woman on the right is making pots.

She is making pots.

She is on the right.

B

She is putting the pot between her both hands.

She is putting the pot.

She is putting it between her both hands.

B

She is touching the pot with her both hands.

She is touching the pot.

She is touching it with her both hands.

C

The other woman getting up at the table is putting pots in the order.

She is getting up at the table.

She is putting pots in the order.

The other woman getting up at the table is putting pots the order.

B

The table is full of pots

The table is full

The table is full of pots.

Right Picture (c)

B

The man is bending his right arm with a bit of meat in his hand.

He is bending his right arm.

A bit of meat is in his hand.

He is bending his right arm with a bit of meat in his hand.

A

Some bits of meat are on the table

A

Some material meats are hanging from the ceiling.


Station

The following story goes in the turn of the pictures.

Type

Original statements are shown in red and questioned statements in black.

B

A woman comes into the station with flowers in her right hand and a box in her left hand

A woman comes into the station.

A woman comes with flowers in her right hand and a box in her left hand. .

The flowers are in her right hand.

The box is in her left hand.

B

She gets a ticket from the man at the window.

She gets a ticket.

She gets it from the man at the window.

The man is at the window.

C

While she is at the window for her ticket she puts down the box and puts the flowers
on the box

She is at the window.

She is there for her ticket.

She puts down the box.

She puts the flowers.

She puts them on the box.

While she is at the window for her ticket she puts down the box and puts the flowerson the box.

B+C

She takes the flowers off the box and puts them in her right hand again and takes up the box after she gets her ticket.

She takes the flowers.

She takes them off the box.

She puts them in her right hand again.

She takes up the box.

She gets her ticket.

She takes up the box after she gets her ticket.

C

She goes to the place where her train is waiting.

She goes to the place.

Her train is waiting.

She goes to the place where her train is waiting

End